Basic Mathematics Rules For Beginners
Here are some basic mathematical rules that are essential for beginners:
 Addition:
 Commutative Property: Changing the order of the numbers does not affect the result. For example, a + b = b + a.
 Associative Property: Changing the grouping of the numbers does not affect the result. For example, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c).
 Identity Property: Adding a zero to a number does not change its value. For example, a + 0 = a.
 Subtraction:
 Subtraction is the inverse operation of addition. If a – b = c, then a + c = b.
 Multiplication:
 Commutative Property: Changing the order of the numbers does not affect the result. For example, a × b = b × a.
 Associative Property: Changing the grouping of the numbers does not affect the result. For example, (a × b) × c = a × (b × c).
 Identity Property: Multiplying a number by one does not change its value. For example, a × 1 = a.
 Zero Property: Multiplying any number by zero gives zero. For example, a × 0 = 0.
 Division:
 The division is the inverse operation of multiplication. If a ÷ b = c, then a = b × c.
 Division by zero is undefined and not possible.

Order of Operations (PEMDAS/BODMAS):
 Parentheses/Brackets: Perform operations within parentheses or brackets first.
 Exponents/Orders: Evaluate any exponentiation or order of operations (such as square roots) next.
 Multiplication and Division: Perform multiplication and division from left to right.
 Addition and Subtraction: Perform addition and subtraction from left to right.
 Fractions:
 A fraction represents a part of a whole. It has a numerator (top number) and a denominator (bottom number). For example, 3/4 represents three parts out of four.
 Fractions can be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided following specific rules.
 Equality:
 The equals sign (=) denotes that two expressions have the same value.
Basic Mathematics Rules For Beginners
 Algebra:
 Variables and Equations: Learn to work with variables, solve equations, and simplify algebraic expressions.
 Linear Equations and Inequalities: Explore equations and inequalities involving linear functions.
 Systems of Equations: Study how to solve and graph equations with multiple variables.
 Polynomials: Understand polynomial expressions, operations, and factorization.
 Geometry:
 Basic Geometric Shapes: Learn about points, lines, angles, triangles, quadrilaterals, circles, and their properties.
 Perimeter and Area: Calculate the perimeter and area of various shapes, including squares, rectangles, triangles, and circles.
 Pythagorean Theorem: Understand the relationship between the sides of a right triangle (a^2 + b^2 = c^2).
 Similarity and Congruence: Explore similar and congruent shapes and the associated properties.
 Coordinate Geometry: Introduce the Cartesian coordinate system and graphing points, lines, and equations.
 Statistics and Probability:
 Data Analysis: Learn to organize, summarize, and represent data using tables, graphs, and charts.
 Measures of Central Tendency: Understand mean, median, and mode as measures of central tendency.
 Probability: Introduce the basic concepts of probability, including calculating probabilities and understanding independence and dependence.
 Statistical Inference: Explore concepts like sampling, confidence intervals, and hypothesis testing.
 Functions:
 Function Notation: Learn how to represent functions using symbols and understand the domain and range of a function.
 Graphing Functions: Graph various types of functions, including linear, quadratic, exponential, and trigonometric functions.
 Transformations: Study how functions can be transformed through translations, reflections, stretches, and compressions.
 Inverse Functions: Understand the concept of inverse functions and how to find them.
 Number Theory:
 Prime Numbers: Learn about prime numbers, composite numbers, and prime factorization.
 Divisibility: Understand divisibility rules and how to determine if a number is divisible by another.
 Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) and Least Common Multiple (LCM): Study methods to find the GCD and LCM of numbers.
Remember that these are more advanced topics, so it’s essential to build a solid foundation in basic mathematics before diving into these concepts. Practice regularly, seek guidance from teachers or educational resources, and gradually progress as you gain confidence and understanding.
Let’s start with some basic concepts and move towards algebraic expressions.
 Numbers: Begin by understanding the different types of numbers, such as natural numbers (1, 2, 3…), whole numbers (0, 1, 2, 3…), integers (3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3…), rational numbers (fractions and decimals), and irrational numbers (such as √2 or π).
 Variables: Variables are symbols (usually letters) used to represent unknown quantities. Commonly used variables are x, y, and z.
 Arithmetic Operations: Review addition (+), subtraction (), multiplication (×), and division (÷).
 Expressions: An expression is a combination of numbers, variables, and arithmetic operations. For example, 3 + 2 is an expression. Expressions can also include parentheses and exponents. For example, (4 × 2) – 5² is an expression.
 Simplification: Simplifying an expression involves performing operations to reduce it to its simplest form. For example, simplifying 3x + 2x would involve combining like terms to get 5x.
 Order of Operations: Remember the acronym PEMDAS/BODMAS, which stands for Parentheses/Brackets, Exponents/Orders, Multiplication and Division (from left to right), and Addition and Subtraction (from left to right). This helps determine the order in which operations should be performed within an expression.
 Equations: Equations involve an equal sign (=) and express that two expressions have the same value. For example, 2x + 3 = 9 is an equation. To solve equations, you aim to find the value(s) of the variable that make the equation true.
 Translating Words to Algebraic Expressions: Practice translating word problems into algebraic expressions. For example, “twice a number increased by 5” can be represented as 2x + 5, where x represents the unknown number.
 Evaluating Expressions: Substitute specific values for variables and calculate the result. For example, if x = 3, evaluate the expression 2x + 4 as (2 × 3) + 4 = 10.
As you progress, you’ll encounter more advanced algebraic concepts like solving systems of equations, factoring, and working with quadratic equations. It’s important to practice regularly, seek guidance from teachers or educational resources, and gradually build your algebraic skills.
Sign rules in mathematics are essential when working with arithmetic operations involving positive and negative numbers. Here are some key sign rules to keep in mind:
 Addition of Positive and Negative Numbers:
 When you add two numbers with the same sign (both positive or negative), you keep the sign and add the absolute values. For example: (+3) + (+5) = +8 and (4) + (2) = 6.
 When you add two numbers with different signs, you subtract the smaller absolute value from the larger one and use the sign of the number with the larger absolute value. For example: (+5) + (3) = +2 and (4) + (+7) = +3.
 Subtraction of Positive and Negative Numbers:
 Subtraction is the same as adding the opposite. To subtract a number, change the sign and perform addition. For example: (+5) – (+3) is the same as (+5) + (3) = +2.
 Multiplication and Division of Positive and Negative Numbers:
 The product of two numbers with the same sign is positive. For example: (+4) × (+2) = +8 and (3) × (2) = +6.
 The product of two numbers with different signs is negative. For example: (+4) × (2) = 8 and (3) × (+2) = 6.
 When dividing two numbers with the same sign, the quotient is positive. For example: (+10) ÷ (+2) = +5 and (12) ÷ (3) = +4.
 When dividing two numbers with different signs, the quotient is negative. For example: (+10) ÷ (2) = 5 and (12) ÷ (+3) = 4.
 Negative Numbers and Exponents:
 When an even number of negative signs is raised to an exponent, the result is positive. For example: (2)² = +4 and (3)⁴ = +81.
 When an odd number of negative signs is raised to an exponent, the result is negative. For example: (2)³ = 8 and (3)⁵ = 243.
It’s crucial to apply these sign rules correctly when performing mathematical operations to obtain accurate results. Practice working with positive and negative numbers, and become familiar with the sign rules to build a strong foundation in mathematics.