# Potential and Kinetic Energy J S 2 | Basic Science Lesson Note

### Topic: Potential and Kinetic Energy

**Class**: J S S 2

**Subject**: Basic Science

**Time**: 40 minutes

### Instructional Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

- Define potential and kinetic energy.
- Differentiate between potential and kinetic energy.
- Use formulas to determine potential and kinetic energy.

### Instructional Materials

- Chalkboard
- Diagrams showing examples of objects in motion and at rest
- Objects such as a ball and a book for demonstrations
- Calculator (for solving energy problems)

### Lesson Development

#### Step 1: Introduction (5 minutes)

- Start by asking students if they’ve ever seen a ball rolling down a hill or a book resting on a table.
- Explain that these are examples of objects that either possess energy in motion or store energy in a position.
- Introduce the terms
**potential energy**and**kinetic energy**and state that both are forms of mechanical energy. Potential and Kinetic Energy J S 2 | Basic Science Lesson Note

#### Step 2: Definitions (10 minutes)

**Potential Energy (PE)**:- Define potential energy as the energy stored in an object due to its position or state.
- Example: A book on a shelf has potential energy because of its height above the ground.

**Kinetic Energy (KE)**:- Define kinetic energy as the energy an object possesses due to its motion.
- Example: A ball rolling down a hill has kinetic energy because it is in motion.

#### Step 3: Differences Between Potential and Kinetic Energy (5 minutes)

- Explain that
**potential energy**is stored energy based on an object’s position, while**kinetic energy**is the energy of movement. - Potential energy depends on height and mass, while kinetic energy depends on speed and mass.

Potential Energy |
Kinetic Energy |
---|---|

Stored energy due to position | Energy of motion |

Depends on height and mass | Depends on speed and mass |

#### Step 4: Formulas for Calculating Energy (15 minutes)

- Write the formulas on the board and explain how each is used.

**Formula for Potential Energy (PE)**:PE=mghwhere:

m= mass of the object (kg)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/s²)

h = height above the ground (m)**Formula for Kinetic Energy (KE)**:KE=12mv2where:

m = mass of the object (kg)

v = velocity of the object (m/s)

- Provide an example for each formula:
- Example for Potential Energy: Calculate the PE of a 2 kg book sitting on a 3 m high shelf.

##### PE=2×9.8×3=58.8 J

- Example for Kinetic Energy: Calculate the KE of a 2 kg ball moving at 4 m/s.

##### KE=1/2 Mv^2 : 1/2 x 4^2 = 16J

#### Step 5: Class Activity (5 minutes)

- Ask students to calculate the potential and kinetic energy of various objects using different given values of mass, height, and velocity.
- Discuss their answers and explain corrections where necessary.

### Conclusion (3 minutes)

- Recap the definitions and differences between potential and kinetic energy.
- Emphasize the formulas used to calculate them and encourage students to practice more problems at home.

### Assessment

- Define potential and kinetic energy.
- Differentiate between potential and kinetic energy.
- Calculate the potential energy of a 5 kg object placed 4 m above the ground.
- Calculate the kinetic energy of a 3 kg object moving at a velocity of 6 m/s.

### Take-Home Assignment

- Find an object at home and determine its potential and kinetic energy at different points in time.

This lesson will help students grasp the concepts of energy in different forms and how to apply formulas to calculate potential and kinetic energy.

## Potential and Kinetic Energy J S 2 | Basic Science Lesson Note

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