# WHAT IS MOMENTUM: TYPES OF MOMENTUM J S 3 E-NOTE

** WHAT IS MOMENTUM**

### WEEK 5: J S 3

### By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

### 1.explain the term “momentum”

### State the law of conservation of linear momentum

### Distinguish between elastic and inelastic collision

__MOMENTUM__

Momentum is a physical quantity defined as the product of an object’s mass and its velocity. It is a vector quantity, meaning it has both magnitude and direction. The formula for momentum

(𝑝) is: 𝑝 =𝑚⋅𝑣 p=m⋅v

where

m is the mass of the object and

𝑣 is its velocity.

**Linear momentum **is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

### State the law of conservation of linear momentum

**Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum**: The law of conservation of linear momentum states that in a closed system with no external forces, the total linear momentum remains constant. This means that the total momentum before any interaction (such as a collision) is equal to the total momentum after the interaction. Mathematically, if two objects collide, the sum of their momenta before the collision is equal to the sum of their momenta after the collision:

This principle is crucial in analyzing collisions and interactions in physics.

### Distinguish between elastic and inelastic collision

**Elastic Collision**: In an elastic collision, both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved. This means that the total kinetic energy of the system before and after the collision remains the same. Elastic collisions are ideal and typically occur at the atomic or molecular level, such as in gas particles. In reality, perfectly elastic collisions are rare.

### Characteristics of Elastic Collisions:

- Conservation of momentum
- Conservation of kinetic energy
- No deformation or generation of heat

Example: Billiard balls colliding, assuming no energy loss to sound or heat.

**Inelastic Collision**: In an inelastic collision, momentum is conserved, but kinetic energy is not. Some of the kinetic energy is transformed into other forms of energy, such as heat, sound, or deformation energy. Inelastic collisions are more common in everyday life.

**Characteristics of inelastic collisions:**

- Conservation of momentum
- Kinetic energy is not conserved (some is converted to other forms of energy)
- Objects may stick together or deform

Example: A car crash, where the vehicles may crumple and stick together, and some kinetic energy is converted into heat and sound.

Momentum is a measure of an object’s motion, the law of conservation of linear momentum states that total momentum in a closed system remains constant, and collisions can be categorized as elastic (conserving kinetic energy) or inelastic (not conserving kinetic energy).

## E-NOTE

__OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS__

What is momentum?

- a) A measure of how fast an object is moving
- b) A measure of an object’s mass
- c) A measure of how hard it is to stop a moving object
- d) A measure of the volume of an object

What two factors determine an object’s momentum?

- a) Speed and distance
- b) Mass and velocity
- c) Volume and density
- d) Height and weight

What is the formula for momentum?

- a) Momentum = Mass + Velocity
- b) Momentum = Mass × Velocity
- c) Momentum = Mass ÷ Velocity
- d) Momentum = Mass – Velocity

If a car’s mass is doubled, what happens to its momentum (assuming its velocity remains the same)?

- a) The momentum is halved
- b) The momentum is doubled
- c) The momentum remains the same
- d) The momentum is tripled

Which unit is used to measure momentum?

- a) Kilograms per meter (kg/m)
- b) Newtons (N)
- c) Kilogram meter per second (kg·m/s)
- d) Meters per second (m/s)

What happens to an object’s momentum if its velocity is doubled?

- a) The momentum is halved
- b) The momentum is doubled
- c) The momentum is quadrupled
- d) The momentum remains the same

A small ball and a large ball are moving at the same speed. Which one has more momentum?

- a) The small ball
- b) The large ball
- c) Both have the same momentum
- d) Neither has momentum

If a moving object comes to a stop, what happens to its momentum?

- a) It is transferred to the ground
- b) It becomes zero
- c) It becomes negative
- d) It doubles

Which of the following will increase an object’s momentum?

- a) Decreasing its mass
- b) Increasing its mass
- c) Keeping its velocity constant
- d) Reducing its speed

Which of these scenarios shows a change in momentum?

- a) A parked car
- b) A rolling ball that stops
- c) A sleeping cat
- d) A standing tree

If two objects have the same mass but different velocities, which one has more momentum?

- a) The one with the smaller velocity
- b) The one with the greater velocity
- c) Both have the same momentum
- d) Neither has momentum

What is the momentum of an object at rest?

- a) Equal to its mass
- b) Infinite
- c) Zero
- d) Equal to its velocity

If the mass of an object is 2 kg and its velocity is 3 m/s, what is its momentum?

- a) 6 kg·m/s
- b) 5 kg·m/s
- c) 3 kg·m/s
- d) 1.5 kg·m/s

Which of the following has the greatest momentum?

- a) A 1 kg object moving at 10 m/s
- b) A 5 kg object moving at 2 m/s
- c) A 10 kg object moving at 1 m/s
- d) A 20 kg object at rest

What effect does a net force have on the momentum of an object?

- a) It increases the mass
- b) It changes the velocity
- c) It keeps the momentum constant
- d) It decreases the mass

If a truck and a car have the same velocity, which one has more momentum?

- a) The truck
- b) The car
- c) Both have the same momentum
- d) Neither has momentum

In a collision, what is conserved if no external forces act on the objects?

- a) Mass
- b) Velocity
- c) Momentum
- d) Speed

If an object’s velocity is zero, what can be said about its momentum?

- a) It is maximum
- b) It is minimum
- c) It is zero
- d) It is infinite

When a force is applied to an object over time, it changes the object’s:

- a) Color
- b) Shape
- c) Momentum
- d) Density

What happens to the momentum of a moving object if its mass is kept constant and its velocity is reduced to half?

- a) The momentum doubles
- b) The momentum is halved
- c) The momentum remains the same
- d) The momentum is tripled

__THEORY QUESTIONS__

Explain what momentum is and how it is calculated. Provide an example with numbers.

Describe how the momentum of an object changes if its mass is doubled while its velocity remains constant.

Discuss the law of conservation of momentum with an example of a collision between two objects.

Explain what happens to the momentum of a moving car if it comes to a stop.

Describe a real-life scenario where momentum plays an important role, such as in sports or transportation.

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